Wednesday, 11 January 2012

Notes on the frontispiece as graphical navigational interface

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In addition to providing some of the most striking images of the early modern period, frontispieces brought new functionality to the printed book.  The frontispiece of Swammerdam’s Tractus Physico functions as a graphical interface that gives the reader another kind of access into the material of the book.  This navigational device reflects the interests of an emerging group of readers–the early modern natural philosopher–and the need for their reading environment to respond to the particular needs of this group of readers.  The need for objective representation, familiarization with new and, to many readers, strange apparati, and careful representation of physically executed processes provide the impetus for a visualization of the experiment that the tract describes. (On the importance of experimental apparatus and the need for accurate representation to audiences unfamiliar with the apparatus, see Shapin and Schaffer).  It also represents a way into the text that is organized around the logic of the type of material the book contains: i.e. the steps and stages of the experiment.

The reference on the frontispiece to page 40 (at the base of the receiver, to which is attached the pump piston) sends the reader to the corresponding point in the experiment where one finds a more detailed description of a diagram on the facing page, using alpha-labels to correlate the discussion to the diagram.

Similarly, the reference to page 55 (on the surface of the plinth, just above the snails) points to a description with a corresponding, detailed diagram with alpha-labels.

Other features of navigation:

This little book (duodecimo?) of less than 140 pages is fully equipped for referencing. Each of the seventeen short chapters (broken into three sections, numbered from “one” in each) also has numbered sections which enable an internal referencing mechanism, as exemplified on page 27 at the start of §.9, which refers to §.2 and §.4. References within the text to other parts of the text are by paragraph, chapter, and page. At the end of the book there is an outline of each chapter (“Syllabus”) that lists topics and points to the page number where they occur. The errata list, in contrast, refers to page and line.   

The frontispiece has not traditionally been ornamental and symbolic, rather functional, and there is something of this tradition represented here.  Some points worth noting:
$          The apparatus merges with the ornamental frame [what is the precise term?].
$          The penes of the two snails intertwine as they look at the date of publication.
The page reference below the snails is to a section (ch. IV §.3) where Swammerdam introduces a discussion of the reproduction of snails which, he discovered, are hermaphrodite.


“Illustrations and their meaning.” Swammerdam’s Science (Webpage)

Shapin, Steven and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the Air-Pump. Princeton UP, 1985. Esp. chs. 2 and 6.
Swammerdam, Jan.  Johannis Swammerdamī ... Tractatus Physico-Anatomico-Medicus De Respiratione Usuque Pulmonum: In Quo, Praeter Primam Respirationis in Foetu Inchoationem, Aëris Per Circulum Propulsio Statuminatur, Attractio Exploditur; Experimentaque Ad Explicandum Sanguinis in Corde Tam Auctum Quam Diminutum Motum in Medium Producuntur. Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Danielem, Abraham, & Adrian. à Gaasbeeck, 1667. 

Spring cleaning of available topics list

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January's going to be a busy month for ArchBook, with some new team members joining the Toronto crew (Jennette and Matt), my ArchBook workshop beginning at the iSchool, and work beginning on a public interface for our image database. Seems like a good time to do some spring cleaning of the topics list posted on the "For Authors" page.

Yesterday I updated the page with a list of topics that are already underway, or which team members have expressed interest in working on. That list is pretty long, which is good, but we need to make the list of available topics is also healthy -- especially now that we're about to solicit a bunch of new entries.

I've updated that list with some new topics that emerged from offline discussions with Richard, Scott, and Rebecca. Defining a good topic is tricky, and I've erred on the side of inclusiveness, figuring that it's best to record ideas before they slip our memories, and then to refine them later. The criteria for a good entry, as I see them, would be:
  • the feature has long enough history or range of use to support an entry (as opposed to being a one-off oddity that would work better as a blog post); remember, that history can be one of success or failure, or both
  • the feature has what Scott calls "digital potential," in that it can inform digital interface design (including but not limited to e-books)
  • the feature's "digital potential" isn't simply that of a cute literalized metaphor, like page-turning animations, but can be connected to a more abstract sense of functionality; for example, bookmarks are a good feature because they point us toward bookmarking as an activity that fits into a bigger picture of discontinuous reading (thinking of Stallybrass's "Books and Scrolls" article)

    Note: with the above criterion I'm hoping we can avoid the mistakes that Johanna Drucker warns against in her chapter "Modeling Functionality: From Codex to E-book" in SpecLab. That chapter is essential reading for us. Further in the background here, but also important, is John Unsworth's notion of scholarly primitives -- that's probably not a concept we need to apply dogmatically here, in the sense of matching features up with primitives, but the spirit of that article could help us think about what textual features matter, and why.
  • ideally, though not necessarily, the feature should be relevant to the work of the other INKE teams; I don't want to confine my students to this criterion, but we should ensure that new entries undertaken by INKE team members meet this requirement
Do these criteria make sense? If not, how should we revise them?

In any case, what entry topics should we add to the list? Would you define any of the existing ones differently? Do you have an idea for an entry that you can't quite put a name to?